CBS Defined

A vision-impaired
person of sound mind experiences
phantom images (visions) in
their visual field.

National helpline
1300 121 123

A selection of journal articles:


Burke, W. (2002). The neural basis of Charles Bonnet hallucinations: a hypothesis. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 73(5): 535-541.


Cox, T. & ffytche, DH. (2014). Negative outcome Charles Bonnet Syndrome. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 98: 1236-1239.


Damas-Mora, J. et al (1982). The Charles Bonnet Syndrome in perspective. Psychological Medicine, 12(2): 251-261


Elflein, H. et al (2016). Charles Bonnet’s syndrome: not only a condition of the elderly. Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 


ffytche, DH et al (1998). The anatomy of conscious vision: an fMRI study of visual hallucinations. Nature Neuroscience, 1(8): 738-742. 


ffytche, DH. (2005). Visual Hallucinations and the Charles Bonnet Syndrome. Current Psychiatry Reports, 7(3): 168-179.


ffytche, DH. (2009). Visual hallucinations in eye disease. Current Opinion in Neurology, 22(1): 28-35.


Gilmour, G. et al (2009). An examination of the relationship between low vision and Charles Bonnet syndrome. Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology, 44(1): 49-52.

Gordon, K. & Felfeli, T. (2018). Family physician awareness of Charles Bonnet syndrome. Family Practice, 35(5): 595-598. 
Khan, J. et al  (2008). Charles Bonnet syndrome in age-related macular degeneration: the nature and frequency of images in subjects with end-stage disease. Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 15(3): 202-208.
Leandro, J. E., et al (2017). The Charles Bonnet Syndrome in Patients With Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Association With Proton Pump Inhibitors. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 58(10): 4138-4142.
Menon, G. et al (2003). Complex visual hallucinations in the visually impaired: the Charles Bonnet Syndrome. Survey of Ophthalmology, 48(1): 58-72.

Mocellin, R. et al (2006). Neuropsychiatry of complex visual hallucinations. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40(9): 742-751.


O'Brien, J. et al (2020). Visual hallucinations in neurological and ophthalmological disease: pathophysiology and management. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 91(5): 512-519.


O'Hare, F. et al (2015). Charles Bonnet Syndrome in advanced retinitis pigmentosa. JAMA Ophthalmology, 122(9): 1951-3.


Plummer, C. et al (2007). Of Roman chariots and goats in overcoats: The syndrome of Charles Bonnet. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, 14(8): 709-714. 


Schultz, G. & Melzack, R. (1991). The Charles Bonnet syndrome: 'phantom visual images'. Perception, 20: 809-825.
Subhi et al (2022). Prevalence of Charles Bonnet syndrome in low vision: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of Eye Science; 7: 1-12.
Teunisse, R. et al (1996). Visual hallucinations in psychologically normal people: Charles Bonnet's syndrome. The Lancet, 347: 794-797.